Not lengthy after the 1924 loss of life of the founding father of the Soviet Union, a preferred poet soothed and thrilled the grieving nation with these phrases: “Lenin lived, Lenin lives, Lenin will stay.”
A century later, the once-omnipresent picture of Vladimir Lenin is essentially an afterthought in trendy Russia, regardless of these well-known traces by revolutionary author Vladimir Mayakovsky.
The Pink Sq. mausoleum the place his embalmed corpse lies in an open sarcophagus is now not a near-mandatory pilgrimage however a web site of macabre kitsch, open solely 15 hours per week. It attracts far fewer guests than the Moscow Zoo.
The goateed face with its intense glare that after appeared unavoidable nonetheless stares out from statues, however lots of these have been the targets of pranksters and vandals. The one at St. Petersburg’s Finland Station commemorating his return from exile was hit by a bomb that left an enormous gap in his posterior. Many streets and localities that bore his identify have been rechristened.
The ideology that Lenin championed and unfold over an unlimited territory is one thing of a sideshow in trendy Russia. The Communist Get together, though the most important opposition grouping in parliament, holds solely 16% of the seats, overwhelmed by President Vladimir Putin’s political power-base, United Russia.
Lenin “turned out to be fully superfluous and pointless in trendy Russia,” historian Konstantin Morozov of the Russian Academy of Sciences advised the AP.
Communist Get together chief Gennady Zyuganov talks as if Lenin nonetheless was in cost: “100 years for the reason that day when his huge and sort coronary heart stopped, the second century of Lenin’s immortality begins,” he mentioned.
Putin himself seems inclined to maintain Lenin at arm’s size, even aiming some darts at him.
In a speech three days earlier than the 2022 invasion of Ukraine, Putin dismissed its sovereign standing as an illegitimate holdover from Lenin’s period, when it was a separate republic inside the Soviet Union.
“On account of Bolshevik coverage, Soviet Ukraine arose, which even at the moment can with good motive be known as ‘Vladimir Ilyich Lenin’s Ukraine.’ He’s the creator and the architect,” Putin mentioned.
In a speech a 12 months earlier, Putin mentioned that permitting Ukraine and different republics the nominal proper to secede had planted “probably the most harmful time bomb.”
No matter objections to these insurance policies, Putin is also clearly conscious of the emotional maintain that Lenin retains for a lot of Russians, and he doesn’t assist initiatives that come up periodically to take away the physique from the mausoleum.
“I imagine it ought to be left as it’s, not less than for so long as there are these, and there are fairly a number of folks, who hyperlink their lives, their fates in addition to sure achievements … of the Soviet period with that,” he mentioned in 2019.
Such hyperlinks might persist for many years. A 2022 opinion survey by state-run polling company VTsIOM discovered that 29% of Russians believed Lenin’s affect would fade a lot that in 50 years he can be remembered solely by historians. However that response was solely 10 proportion factors decrease than one to the identical query a decade earlier, suggesting Lenin stays necessary.
Lenin’s maintain on Russia’s coronary heart remains to be robust sufficient that three years in the past, the Union of Russian Architects succumbed to a public outcry and canceled a contest soliciting strategies for the way the Pink Sq. mausoleum could possibly be repurposed. That competitors didn’t even particularly name for the elimination of Lenin’s physique.
Lenin died on Jan. 21, 1924, at age 53, severely weakened by three strokes. His widow, Nadezhda Krupskaya, needed him to be buried in a traditional grave.
Lenin’s shut associates had feared his loss of life for months. Artist Yuri Annenkov, summoned to do his portrait on the dacha the place he was convalescing, mentioned he had “the helpless, twisted, childish smile of a person who had fallen into childhood.”
Amid these issues, Josef Stalin advised a Politburo assembly of a proposal by “some comrades” to protect Lenin’s physique for hundreds of years, in response to a historical past by Russian information company Tass. The thought offended Leon Trotsky, Lenin’s closest lieutenant, who likened it to the holy relics displayed by the Russian Orthodox Church — a staunch opponent of the Bolsheviks— that had “nothing in widespread with the science of Marxism.”
However Stalin, as soon as a divinity college pupil, understood the worth of the secular analogue to a saint.
The climate might have tipped the scales. Temperatures had been reportedly as little as minus 30 C (minus 22 F) when Lenin’s physique was displayed throughout a wake in Moscow, stalling decomposition and provoking authorities to swiftly construct a small picket mausoleum in Pink Sq. and make additional efforts to protect the physique.
A later model, a extra modernist tackle historical stepped pyramids clad in somber deep purple stone, opened in 1930. By that point, Trotsky had been pressured into exile and Stalin was in full management, bolstered by a willpower to painting himself as completely loyal to Lenin’s beliefs.
Ultimately, the cult of “Lenin After Lenin” might have labored in opposition to the Soviet Union quite than strengthening it by implementing a inflexible mindset, within the view of some historians.
“In some ways the tragedy of the USSR lay in the truth that all subsequent generations of leaders tried to depend on sure ‘testaments of Lenin,’” Vladimir Rudakov, editor of the journal Istorik, wrote on this month’s challenge.
The Mayakovsky poem that proclaimed Lenin’s immortality was “a parting phrase, or a spell, or a curse,” Rudakov mentioned.
About 450,000 folks file previous Lenin’s corpse per 12 months, in response to Tass, a few third of the variety of Moscow Zoo guests and a pointy distinction from the Soviet period when seemingly infinite traces shuffled throughout Pink Sq..
The respect guards whose goose-stepping rotations fascinated guests had been faraway from exterior the mausoleum three a long time in the past. On the annual army parade via Pink Sq., the construction is blocked from view by a tribune the place dignitaries watch the festivities.
Lenin remains to be there — simply more durable to see.
Jim Heintz, now primarily based in Estonia, has coated Russia for The Related Press since 1999.