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Sunday, November 28, 2021

Diabetes. What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes? November 14 is World Diabetes Day

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Over three million people in Poland suffer from diabetes, and over 460 million in the world. Symptoms of this chronic disease include, but are not limited to, increased thirst and appetite, frequent urination, drowsiness, constant fatigue, and blurred vision. On Sunday, World Diabetes Day, the Ministry of Health reminds about them and encourages research.

World Diabetes Day is celebrated each year on November 14. On that day, the Canadian Frederick Banting, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1923 for the discovery of insulin, was born. It was a breakthrough in the treatment of this disease. It happens when the body does not produce enough insulin or is unable to use it effectively in the process of metabolizing sugars from the food you eat.

Three million people in Poland suffer from diabetes, out of more than 460 million worldwide. Every eight seconds, someone dies of complications such as cardiovascular disease, including stroke, heart attack, and kidney failure. That is why the disease became known as the non-communicable epidemic of the 21st century.

Diabetes mellitus called “diabetes mellitus” has been known since antiquity. The first part means “flowing” and the second “sweet as honey”. In the old days it was diagnosed by the sweet taste of urine. There was no known effective drug. Currently, there are different types of diabetes, including type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes and type 2 (insulin-resistant) diabetes.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus are confused with food poisoning

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Type 1 diabetes mellitus is also called juvenile diabetes, as it usually appears up to the age of 35, usually in children up to 12-14 years of age. It is an incurable disease. Before insulin was discovered, it was fatal in a relatively short time.

It is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s antibodies destroy insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas for as yet unknown reasons. Without this hormone, glucose, necessary for human functioning, is not absorbed into some cells, its concentration in the blood rises and metabolic disorders occur (ketoacidosis). Excess glucose is excreted in the urine. The diagnosis itself is simple – it is based on the basic examination of glucose in blood and urine.

The clinical manifestations of type 1 diabetes most often occur suddenly and develop within a few weeks. They are often confused with food poisoning. These are abdominal pain, vomiting, increased thirst (drinking a few to several liters of water a day), polyuria, apathy, fatigue, weight loss, hunger. Failure to intervene promptly can lead to ketoacidosis and even coma and death.

Type 1 diabetes is initially treated in a hospital setting. Until the end of life, insulin therapy is indispensable – subcutaneous insulin injections with the use of pen pens or an insulin pump, constant monitoring of glycaemia, i.e. blood glucose level, appropriate diet and physical activity.

About 180,000 people suffer from type 1 diabetes in Poland, and about 1,600 new cases are diagnosed in children up to about 14 years of age.

DiabetesMaria Samczuk, Adam Ziemienowicz / PAP

The cause of type 2 diabetes, among other things, is obesity

Type 2 diabetes, accounting for 80 to 90 percent of diabetes, is also called adult diabetes. It usually appears after the age of 35, although it affects increasingly younger people, including adolescents. The most common causes of the disease are obesity, poor eating habits (environmental factors) or genes.

In this type of condition, the body produces insulin, but is not able to absorb it. However, you can sensitize your cells to insulin by using appropriate medications, a balanced diet, without excess sugars, salt and fats, and by exercising regularly, maintaining an appropriate body weight. Type 2 diabetes does not always require insulin.

High blood glucose levels can damage internal organs

Normal fasting blood glucose for an adult is 70-99 milligrams per deciliter, after a meal (two hours) below 140 mg / dL.

Long-term high blood glucose levels damage internal organs and can cause heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, impotence, and infections leading to amputation.

The Ministry of Health encourages the tests on Sunday. As he emphasizes, disturbing symptoms of diabetes that should not be ignored are increased thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, recurrent urinary tract infections, purulent lesions on the skin, poor wound healing, visual disturbances, drowsiness, increased appetite, constant feeling of fatigue and feeling of dry mouth. If we observe these symptoms at home, it is worth consulting a doctor.

In the Sejm, in connection with the celebration of the World Diabetes Day, on November 16 at 9 am there will be a press conference of representatives of the Parliamentary Team for Diabetes and the Polish Diabetes Association. On November 18, from 11am to 12pm, during the team meeting, there will be a debate on the state of Polish diabetology and recommendations for changes.

Main photo source: meteo



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