Brian Grossman had 20 years of expertise within the healthcare area — however his agency, PFM Well being Sciences, invested $96 million in Theranos anyway. On the stand, he defined that his agency had relied on Elizabeth Holmes’ details about Theranos, in addition to monetary fashions offered by the corporate, to make the decision.
Taken as a complete, Grossman’s testimony in US v Elizabeth Holmes was damning. In contrast to the investors from family offices, he’d visited Theranos’ services, had his blood drawn, and despatched emails with intensive due diligence questions. He had expertise in healthcare. He’d checked out Walgreens’ public statements in regards to the firm. However as a result of he’d relied on Theranos’ representations of its know-how, he was misled — and he singled out Holmes as being the supply of a lot of the deceptive data.
Holmes informed him that Theranos might match something its much-larger rivals, Quest Diagnostics and Labcorp, might do. That was “a very massive assertion” about how a lot the corporate had completed, Grossman stated.
Grossman, like other investors testifying before him, had been impressed by Theranos’ work with the army; he was informed that Theranos’ tech was used on the battlefield and in medivacs. And when he heard that Theranos’ exams have been utilized by drug firms to validate experimental merchandise, that dazzled him too. He knew that getting medication by way of the pipeline into approval was essential to pharma firms’ companies — so for Theranos’ tech for use for that was a excessive mark of approval. The monetary projections Theranos offered to him had an estimated $30 million coming from pharma firms in 2014.
In fact, neither of this stuff have been true. Theranos gadgets weren’t used on medivacs or on the battlefield. And whereas Theranos had labored with pharma firms, none of them selected to make use of the exams to validate experimental merchandise, largely as a result of preliminary studies showed the tests sucked. The income projection was bizarre, partly as a result of Theranos had no revenue, from pharma companies or otherwise, in 2012 or 2013.
Grossman says that Holmes, former CEO of Theranos, and her co-defendant, Sunny Balwani, who’s being tried individually, informed him Theranos exams took solely 4 hours to supply a outcome. In a slide deck, a graphic particularly identified the consistency of Theranos’ vitamin D exams — which was one of many exams whistleblower Erika Cheung had apprehensive wasn’t accurate.
And Holmes did many of the speaking of their conferences, Grossman testified. (This matched other investor testimony.) That’s unhealthy information for Holmes’ protection, which has been attempting to argue that Holmes naively trusted Balwani and that he was the actual villain at Theranos.
Grossman adopted up after the assembly with a protracted record of due diligence questions. He needed to know, as an example, what the restrictions on the tech have been. Holmes and Balwani have been “emphatic” that their gadgets have been labs shrunk all the way down to the scale of a field, he stated. Holmes was “very clear that this know-how was not a point-of-care check, not a point-of-care testing platform, it was a miniaturized lab,” he stated.
That was very thrilling — a vastly disruptive know-how. Grossman was informed that the complete Phoenix marketplace for Theranos might be supported in a lab of 200 sq. ft; a competitor lab at Quest Diagnostics, which he’d toured, was a whole bunch of hundreds of sq. ft.
All through the course of the conferences and e mail exchanges, neither Holmes nor Balwani talked about that the Theranos know-how was used for only a handful of exams. Nobody talked about that they used third-party gear.
The Walgreens deal additionally bolstered Grossman’s confidence, although Balwani was squirrely when Grossman needed to talk to representatives from Walgreens. He informed Grossman that it wouldn’t look good and he was “uncomfortable with that,” Grossman testified.
He was additionally informed that there was a cope with UnitedHealthcare, which steered legitimacy to Grossman. He needed to speak with them in regards to the Theranos partnership. “We extremely worth their potential to vet know-how and new firms,” Grossman stated. However Balwani nixed that concept, too.
These denials “pressured us to depend on the representations they made to us,” Grossman stated.
Grossman went and talked to Channing Robertson, a Stanford professor who’d helped Holmes begin Theranos. Robertson informed Grossman there was no technical threat related to the corporate — the one threat was ensuring shoppers had a very good expertise. He additionally stated that the know-how was so superior that even when it fell into the fingers of rivals, it could take them years to catch up.
Grossman toured the HQ. He toured the scientific lab, the place he noticed solely Theranos analyzers and not one of the modified third-party gadgets the corporate was really utilizing. He toured the manufacturing facility. He even went to a Palo Alto Walgreens to get his blood drawn — a venous draw, one which took greater than a day to get outcomes. Balwani informed Grossman that was as a result of his physician ordered an uncommon check.
Grossman’s blood check gave us a peek behind the scenes at Theranos. The prosecution confirmed an e mail to Theranos whistleblower Adam Rosendorff and another staff in Theranos’ lab, asking them to hurry up work on a “VIP” check — Grossman’s. “That is on the Immulite, proper?” an worker replied, referencing a competitor’s machine. That was confirmed by one other worker. (Grossman stated in courtroom that if he’d identified rivals’ gadgets have been getting used, he would have requested much more questions of Theranos.)
So Grossman determined to speculate. Positive, Theranos had been weirdly secretive and security-focused when he’d visited, however Grossman shrugged that off. Sure, it was odd that he’d been discouraged from speaking to Theranos’ companions, however he shrugged that off too — hadn’t a Stanford professor informed him the tech was wonderful? Wasn’t Walgreens touting it of their quarterly earnings calls?
And now, in fact, one among his investments underpins a rely of wire fraud in opposition to Holmes.